T he species is ovoviviparous and reaches sexual maturity at 4 to 6 years old. With a low fecundity of three to four pups per litter and a long gestation of 6 to 12 months (depending on the geographical zone), this species has a very sensitive life history. Little is known concerning the ecology and behaviour of A. bovinus, however it is part of the coastal marine mega fauna, with a maximum length of 222cm and 116kg, bull rays can be considered as giants of the shallow waters. Their maximum length and very narrow depth range of 0 to 30m exposes them to various threats. Indeed large-bodied, shallow-water species are at greatest risk of threats. Bull rays appear to be extremely rare throughout the Mediterranean region and their current population trend is likely decreasing.